ice age

An Unusual Suspect: DId the Gulf Stream Trigger the Ice Age?

Gulf Stream map WI tnail smaller.jpg

Gulf Stream (cover image)
Image adapted from:
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Golfstream.jpg
Attribution/Licence: By RedAndr [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html) or CC BY-SA 4.0  (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0)], via Wikimedia Commons

Central American Seaway 
Image from:
https://www.eurekalert.org/multimedia/pub/89813.php?from=293350
Attribution: Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute
Licence: No licence information cited

Ice Age An Unusual Suspect Central Ameri

Ellesmere Island map
Image from:
https://www.flickr.com/photos/8905239@N05/6209581637
Attribution: Opus Penguin on Flickr
Licence: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0/

Ice Age Ellesmere Island CC WI tnail sma

Through a Glass, Darkly: Our Incomplete View of Ice Age Ireland

Ice Age LGM globe adapted cropped CC WI

Ice Age globe showing Ireland completely covered in ice
Image adapted from:
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AIceAgeEarth.jpg
Attribution/Licence: By Ittiz (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons

Ice Age Giants: Ireland's Woolly Mammoths

Ice Age Woolly Mammoth facing camera CC

Woolly mammoth front view
Image from:
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Wooly_Mammoth-RBC.jpg
Attribution/Licence: By Tracy O (Flickr) [CC BY-SA 2.0  (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0)], via Wikimedia Commons

Musk oxen close-up
Image from:
https://www.flickr.com/photos/bering_land_bridge/15654129683
Attribution: Bering Land Bridge National Preserve
Licence: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0/

Ice Age Musk oxen CC WI tnail smaller.jp

All Fur Coat: How Mammoths Became 'Woolly'

Woolly mammoth CC WI tnail smaller.jpg

Woolly mammoth (cover image)
Image from:
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AWoolly_mammoth.jpg
Attribution/Licence: By Flying Puffin (Mammut  Uploaded by FunkMonk) [CC BY-SA 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0)], via Wikimedia Commons

Mammuthus subplanifrons
Image from:
https://www.deviantart.com/sameerprehistorica/art/South-African-Mammoth-550898472
Attribution/Copyright: SameerPrehistorica ( on DeviantArt. Reproduced here with his permission.

Ice Age All Fur Coat Mammuthus subplanif
Ice Age All Fur Coat Mammuthus trogonthe

Steppe mammoth, Mammuthus trogontherii
Image adapted from:
https://www.deviantart.com/sameerprehistorica/art/Steppe-Mammoth-331974787

Attribution/Copyright: SameerPrehistorica on DeviantArt. Reproduced here with his permission.

Laughing at the Cold: Ireland's Ancient Hyenas

32,000-year-old rock painting from Chauvet Cave possibly of a cave hyena
Image from:
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:20,000_Year_Old_Cave_Paintings_Hyena.png
Attribution/Licence: Chauvet Cave [Public domain or CC BY-SA 2.0  (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0)], via Wikimedia Commons

Ice Age Spotted Hyena rock painting Chau
Ice_Age_Laughing_at_the_Cold_Fossil_Hyen

Fossil hyena species
Image from:
Fig.2 from Turner, Alan, Antón, Mauricio, & Werdelin, Lars (2008) Taxonomy and evolutionary patterns in the fossil Hyaenidae of Europe. Geobios 41 (5), 677–687.

Attribution: Mauricio Antón
Copyright: Mauricio Antón. Reproduced here with his permission

Spotted hyenas in the snow
Image from:
https://www.deviantart.com/renum63/art/Ice-Age-spotted-hyena-584821291
Attribution: Renum63 on DeviantArt
Copyright: Renum63 on DeviantArt. Reproduced here with his permission

Ice Age Laughing at the Cold Spotted hye

From Ice-Land to Island: The Last Glacial Maximum & Birth of Island Ireland

LGM globe adapted CC WI tnail smaller.jp

Last Glacial Maximum globe
Image adapted from:
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AIceAgeEarth.jpg
Attribution/Licence: By Ittiz (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons

Ben Bulben, Co. Sligo

Image adapted from:
https://www.flickr.com/photos/andrewparnell/532965492
Attribution: Andrew Parnell on Flickr
Licence: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/

Banner Ben Bulben New CC WI tnail smalle
Ice Age Arctic sandwort Arenaria ciliata

Arctic sandwort (Arenaria ciliata)
Image from:
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Arenaria_ciliata.JPG
Attribution/Licence: By No machine-readable author provided. Thommybe assumed (based on copyright claims). [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html) or CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/)], via Wikimedia Commons

The White Bear's Green Heritage? Polar Bears & Ice Age Ireland

Antarctic Temperature and Global Ice Volume chart 450 KYA to Present
Image from:
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Ice_Age_Temperature.png
Attribution: Robert A. Rohde
Licence: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/deed.en

Ice Age Hoxnian Interglacial temp chart

Polar bear swimming underwater
Image from:
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Polar_bear_swimming_in_zoo.jpg
Attribution/Licence: By John [CC BY 2.0  (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0)], via Wikimedia Commons

Ice Age Polar Bear swimming underwater C

Polar bear/brown bear hybrid
Image from:
https://www.flickr.com/photos/derstefan/7303775984
Attribution: Stefan David, CamperCo.de
Licence: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0/

Ice Age Polar Bear Brown Bear hybrid CC

Mouse cells showing nucleus, mitochondria, and cell skeleton
Image from:
https://www.flickr.com/photos/nichd/19124186316
Attribution: NICHD on flickr
Licence: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/

Ice Age Mouse cells with mitochondria CC
Ice Age Mitochondrion simple diagram CC.

Animal cell simple diagram
Image from:
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Simple_diagram_of_animal_cell_(en).svg
Attribution/Licence: By domdomegg [CC BY 4.0  (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0)], from Wikimedia Commons

Mitochondrial DNA inheritance diagram
Image from:
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Mitochondrial_DNA_versus_Nuclear_DNA.gif
Attribution/Licence: By University of California Museum of Paleontology (UCMP) and the National Center for Science Education [CC BY-SA 3.0  (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons

Ice Age The White Bears Green Heritage M

Crowned as a True Ice Age King: The Giant Irish Deer

Giant Irish deer skeleton white background
Image from:
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Irish_Elk_Side_(white_background).jpg

Attribution/Licence: By Franco Atirador ([1]) [CC BY-SA 2.5  (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5)], via Wikimedia Commons

Ice Age giant Irish deer skeleton white

Giant Irish deer size image
Image from:
https://www.deviantart.com/sameerprehistorica/art/Megaloceros-392666388
Attribution/Copyright: SameerPrehistorica on DeviantArt. Reproduced here with his permission

Ice Age giant Irish deer size SameerPreh
Ice Age giant Irish deer skull from Lime

Giant Irish deer skull from Limerick bog
Image from:
https://www.flickr.com/photos/jsjgeology/15443691062
Attribution: James St. John on Flickr
Licence: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/

Fallow deer
Image from:
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:A_fallow_deer_walking_forward.jpg
Attribution/Licence: By Michael Palmer [CC BY-SA 4.0  (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0)], from Wikimedia Commons

Ice Age Fallow deer CC WI tnail smaller.

The First Irish: New Evidence Rewrites the Story of the Earliest Modern Humans in Ireland

Dún Aonghasa aerial photo
Image adapted from:
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Dun_Aonghasa.JPG
Attribution/Licence: Ronan Mac Giollapharaic [CC BY-SA 4.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0)]

The_First_Irish_Dún_Aonghasa_CC_WI_tnail

Alice and Gwendoline Cave
Image from:
https://bit.ly/32N9cxl
Attribution/Copyright: Terry Casserly and Tim O’Connell. Reproduced here with permission.

The First Irish Alice and Gwendoline Cav

Brown bear kneecap showing cutmarks
Image from:
https://bit.ly/32N9cxl
Attribution/Copyright: James Connolly. Reproduced here with permission.

The First Irish Bear kneecap in dish Cop

Dr Marion Dowd in Alice and Gwendoline Cave
Image from:
https://bit.ly/32N9cxl
Attribution/Copyright: Terry Casserly and Tim O’Connell. Reproduced here with permission.

The First Irish Dr Marion Dowd in Alice