ice age

An Unusual Suspect: DId the Gulf Stream Trigger the Ice Age?

Gulf Stream (cover image)
Image adapted from:
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Golfstream.jpg
Attribution/Licence: By RedAndr [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html) or CC BY-SA 4.0  (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0)], via Wikimedia Commons

Central American Seaway 
Image from:
https://www.eurekalert.org/multimedia/pub/89813.php?from=293350
Attribution: Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute
Licence: No licence information cited

Ellesmere Island map
Image from:
https://www.flickr.com/photos/8905239@N05/6209581637
Attribution: Opus Penguin on Flickr
Licence: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0/

Through a Glass, Darkly: Our Incomplete View of Ice Age Ireland

Ice Age globe showing Ireland completely covered in ice
Image adapted from:
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AIceAgeEarth.jpg
Attribution/Licence: By Ittiz (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons

Ice Age Giants: Ireland's Woolly Mammoths

Woolly mammoth front view
Image from:
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Wooly_Mammoth-RBC.jpg
Attribution/Licence: By Tracy O (Flickr) [CC BY-SA 2.0  (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0)], via Wikimedia Commons

Musk oxen close-up
Image from:
https://www.flickr.com/photos/bering_land_bridge/15654129683
Attribution: Bering Land Bridge National Preserve
Licence: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0/

All Fur Coat: How Mammoths Became 'Woolly'

Woolly mammoth (cover image)
Image from:
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AWoolly_mammoth.jpg
Attribution/Licence: By Flying Puffin (Mammut  Uploaded by FunkMonk) [CC BY-SA 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0)], via Wikimedia Commons

Mammuthus subplanifrons
Image from:
https://www.deviantart.com/sameerprehistorica/art/South-African-Mammoth-550898472
Attribution/Copyright: SameerPrehistorica ( on DeviantArt. Reproduced here with his permission.

Steppe mammoth, Mammuthus trogontherii
Image adapted from:
https://www.deviantart.com/sameerprehistorica/art/Steppe-Mammoth-331974787

Attribution/Copyright: SameerPrehistorica on DeviantArt. Reproduced here with his permission.

Laughing at the Cold: Ireland's Ancient Hyenas

32,000-year-old rock painting from Chauvet Cave possibly of a cave hyena
Image from:
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:20,000_Year_Old_Cave_Paintings_Hyena.png
Attribution/Licence: Chauvet Cave [Public domain or CC BY-SA 2.0  (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0)], via Wikimedia Commons

Fossil hyena species
Image from:
Fig.2 from Turner, Alan, Antón, Mauricio, & Werdelin, Lars (2008) Taxonomy and evolutionary patterns in the fossil Hyaenidae of Europe. Geobios 41 (5), 677–687.

Attribution: Mauricio Antón
Copyright: Mauricio Antón. Reproduced here with his permission

Spotted hyenas in the snow
Image from:
https://www.deviantart.com/renum63/art/Ice-Age-spotted-hyena-584821291
Attribution: Renum63 on DeviantArt
Copyright: Renum63 on DeviantArt. Reproduced here with his permission

From Ice-Land to Island: The Last Glacial Maximum & Birth of Island Ireland

Last Glacial Maximum globe
Image adapted from:
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AIceAgeEarth.jpg
Attribution/Licence: By Ittiz (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons

Ben Bulben, Co. Sligo

Image adapted from:
https://www.flickr.com/photos/andrewparnell/532965492
Attribution: Andrew Parnell on Flickr
Licence: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/

Arctic sandwort (Arenaria ciliata)
Image from:
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Arenaria_ciliata.JPG
Attribution/Licence: By No machine-readable author provided. Thommybe assumed (based on copyright claims). [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html) or CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/)], via Wikimedia Commons

The White Bear's Green Heritage? Polar Bears & Ice Age Ireland

Antarctic Temperature and Global Ice Volume chart 450 KYA to Present
Image from:
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Ice_Age_Temperature.png
Attribution: Robert A. Rohde
Licence: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/deed.en

Polar bear swimming underwater
Image from:
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Polar_bear_swimming_in_zoo.jpg
Attribution/Licence: By John [CC BY 2.0  (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0)], via Wikimedia Commons

Polar bear/brown bear hybrid
Image from:
https://www.flickr.com/photos/derstefan/7303775984
Attribution: Stefan David, CamperCo.de
Licence: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0/

Mouse cells showing nucleus, mitochondria, and cell skeleton
Image from:
https://www.flickr.com/photos/nichd/19124186316
Attribution: NICHD on flickr
Licence: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/

Animal cell simple diagram
Image from:
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Simple_diagram_of_animal_cell_(en).svg
Attribution/Licence: By domdomegg [CC BY 4.0  (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0)], from Wikimedia Commons

Mitochondrial DNA inheritance diagram
Image from:
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Mitochondrial_DNA_versus_Nuclear_DNA.gif
Attribution/Licence: By University of California Museum of Paleontology (UCMP) and the National Center for Science Education [CC BY-SA 3.0  (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons

Crowned as a True Ice Age King: The Giant Irish Deer

Giant Irish deer skeleton white background
Image from:
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Irish_Elk_Side_(white_background).jpg

Attribution/Licence: By Franco Atirador ([1]) [CC BY-SA 2.5  (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5)], via Wikimedia Commons

Giant Irish deer size image
Image from:
https://www.deviantart.com/sameerprehistorica/art/Megaloceros-392666388
Attribution/Copyright: SameerPrehistorica on DeviantArt. Reproduced here with his permission

Giant Irish deer skull from Limerick bog
Image from:
https://www.flickr.com/photos/jsjgeology/15443691062
Attribution: James St. John on Flickr
Licence: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/

Fallow deer
Image from:
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:A_fallow_deer_walking_forward.jpg
Attribution/Licence: By Michael Palmer [CC BY-SA 4.0  (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0)], from Wikimedia Commons

The First Irish: New Evidence Rewrites the Story of the Earliest Modern Humans in Ireland

Dún Aonghasa aerial photo
Image adapted from:
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Dun_Aonghasa.JPG
Attribution/Licence: Ronan Mac Giollapharaic [CC BY-SA 4.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0)]

Alice and Gwendoline Cave
Image from:
https://bit.ly/32N9cxl
Attribution/Copyright: Terry Casserly and Tim O’Connell. Reproduced here with permission.

Brown bear kneecap showing cutmarks
Image from:
https://bit.ly/32N9cxl
Attribution/Copyright: James Connolly. Reproduced here with permission.

Dr Marion Dowd in Alice and Gwendoline Cave
Image from:
https://bit.ly/32N9cxl
Attribution/Copyright: Terry Casserly and Tim O’Connell. Reproduced here with permission.

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